# Mathematics Courses

### Required Courses

#### Algebra Enrichment

*Grade 10-11
1 credit
Prerequisite: Recommendation of Guidance dept.*

Algebra Enrichment is a mathematics support course for Algebra I. The course provides students with additional time to build the foundations necessary for high school math courses, while concurrently having access to rigorous, grade-level appropriate courses. The five critical areas of Algebra Enrichment align with the critical areas of Algebra I: Relationships between Quantities and Reasoning with Equations; Linear and Exponential Relationships; Descriptive Statistics; Expressions and Equations; and Quadratic Functions and Modeling. ALEKS, an online math program, will supplement lecture and individualized study.

#### Algebra I (Academic)

*Grade 9
2 credits
Prerequisite: none*

In Algebra I, the use of variables in developing techniques and strategies for solving problems is established. Solving equations with one variable and systems of equations with two or more variables is an important component. Solving inequalities in one or two variables is also featured. Emphasis is placed on operations with polynomials, factoring, and manipulation of algebraic fractions and fractional equations. The Cartesian coordinate system is revisited to graph linear equations and inequalities. The course concludes with the study of quadratic equations. Students will be given an End of Course Assessment (ECA) at the conclusion of the course and will need to achieve a minimum score for state-mandated graduation requirements.

#### Algebra I (Honors)

Grade 9

2 credits

Prerequisite: Guidance counselor approval

Honors Algebra I students are expected to master the same standards of Algebra I (Academic) with greater emphasis placed in such topics as transforming formulas, factoring polynomials, choosing mathematical models, and inverse variations. Additional assigned practice in these areas prepares the honors student for future honors classes and more difficult assessment instruments. Students will be given an End of Course Assessment (ECA) at the conclusion of the course and will need to achieve a minimum score for state-mandated graduation requirements.

#### Algebra II (Academic)

*Grades 10-12
2 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I and Geometry*

Algebra II extends the many concepts mastered in Algebra I including linear, absolute value, quadratic, polynomial, radical, rational, exponential and logarithmic function families and their transformations. Solving systems of equations are extended to three-variable systems. Matrices are introduced as an alternative way of solving systems of equations. Analytic geometry is introduced, particularly as it pertains to the conic sections. Laws of exponents and radicals are extended through the introduction of rational exponents and complex numbers. Scientific and graphing calculators along with computer software are used extensively.

#### Algebra II (Honors)

*Grades 10-12
2 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I and Geometry*

Algebra II Honors covers the same topics described above in more depth. At the Honors level, more emphasis is placed on answering the “why” and “how” questions that lead to a deeper understanding of the fundamentals of mathematics. Students at this level are expected identify patterns and make predictions about the behavior of algebraic functions, and to develop and express an understanding of the subject matter that allows them to make judgments about the validity of mathematical propositions.

#### Finite Mathematics (Academic)

*Grade 10-12
1 credit
Prerequisite: Algebra II*

Discrete Mathematics is an umbrella of mathematical topics. It is a course designed for students who will undertake higher-level mathematics in college that may not include calculus. It is a practical math course with many hands-on labs and activities. Topics include matrices, recursion, graph theory, social choice, and game theory. Technology, such as computers and graphing calculators, is required.

#### Finite Mathematics (Honors)

*Grade 10-12
1 credit
Prerequisite: Algebra II *

Discrete Mathematics is an umbrella of mathematical topics. It is a course designed for students who will undertake higher-level mathematics in college that may not include calculus. Finite Honors will dig deeper into the many topics relevant to this field of math, such as matrices, recursion, graph theory, social choice, and game theory. Technology, such as computers and graphing calculators, is required.

#### Geometry (Academic)

*Grades 10-11
2 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra 1*

Euclidean geometry involves the development of a logical, deductive system through establishment of rules of argument, definitions, postulates, and theorems. The concept of deductive proof is introduced early in the course and is fully developed as the course progresses. Topics include congruent and similar figures, perpendicular and parallel lines, polygons (with an emphasis on triangles and quadrilaterals), circles, areas, and volumes. The main emphasis of the course is on plane geometry, but some aspects of solid geometry are included. Throughout the course, algebra is used extensively to solve geometric problems.

#### Geometry (Honors)

*Grades 9-11
2 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra 1 and Guidance counselor approval*

Honors Geometry students will master the same standards of Geometry as the academic level of the course while studying some concepts in more depth. Some of these additional challenge problems are using trigonometry to find area of polygons, finding the distance from a point to a diagonal line, and completing more formal proofs of geometric relationships. Honors students must demonstrate their grasp of the topics on more difficult assessment instruments that differentiate the two levels.

#### Mathematics Standard Level, International Baccalaureate

*Grades 11-12
2 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I, Geometry I, Algebra II*

Mathematics Standard Level provides students who will continue to study mathematics at the university level with a background of mathematical thought and a functional level of technical ability. The use of graphing technology is required. Students must complete study in the following core topics: algebra; functions and equations; circular functions in trigonometry; matrices; vectors; statistics and probability; calculus; functions, graphs and limits; derivatives; and integrals. Each student must submit an investigation paper and a modeling project comprising 20% of the IB assessment.

#### Mathematics Higher Level, International Baccalaureate

*Grades 11-12
4 Credits
Prerequisite: Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, Trigonometry (H) (teacher recommendation only)*

Mathematics HL caters to students with a good background in mathematics who are competent in a range of analytical and technical skills. The majority of these students will be expecting to include mathematics as a major component of their university studies, either as a subject in its own right or within courses such as physics, engineering, and technology. Others may take this subject because they have a strong interest in mathematics and enjoy meeting its challenges and engaging with its problems. In addition to the deeper investigation of the core topics covered in SL, HL will include topics in series and differential equations.

#### Pre-Calculus/Trigonometry (Academic)

*Grades 11-12
2 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra II*

Pre-Calculus covers a variety of advanced mathematical topics. Concepts introduced in Algebra II are reinforced and extended. The course studies trigonometry and its many applications. Other topics studied include analytic geometry, vectors, matrices, sequences and series, logarithms and exponents, complex numbers, probability, and mathematical induction. Emphasis is on problem-solving techniques, relationships between mathematics, and other fields of study. Graphing calculators and computer software are used extensively.

#### Pre-Calculus/Trigonometry (Honors)

*Grades 11-12
2 credits
Prerequisite: Algebra II*

Pre-calculus Honors covers many of the same topics included in Academic Pre-calculus, though in more depth. Students complete several projects that utilize the topics being taught. This course will also prepare students for the IB SL Mathematics course. Extensive use of technology with the graphing calculator and computer is utilized during the course.

#### Probability and Statistics (Academic)

*Grade 11-12
1 credit
Prerequisite: Algebra II*

Probability and Statistics includes the concepts and skills needed to apply statistical techniques in the decision-making process. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, and statistical inference. Practical examples based on real experimental data are used throughout. Students plan and conduct experiments or surveys and analyze the resulting data. The use of graphing calculators and computer programs is encouraged. Students will also read Super Crunchers by Ian Ayers.

#### Probability and Statistics (Honors)

*Grade 10-12
1 credit
Prerequisite: Algebra II*

Probability and Statistics includes the concepts and skills needed to apply statistical techniques in the decision-making process. Topics include descriptive statistics, probability, and statistical inference. Practical examples based on real experimental data are used throughout. Students plan and conduct experiments or surveys and analyze the resulting data. The use of graphing calculators and computer programs is required. Students will also read Super Crunchers by Ian Ayers.

#### Trigonometry (Honors) 3rd trimester

*Grade 10
1 credit
Prerequisite: Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra II and Guidance Counselor approval*

Trigonometry provides students with the skills and understandings that are necessary for advanced manipulation of angles and measurement. Trigonometry provides the foundation for common periodic functions that are encountered many disciplines, including music, engineering, medicine, and finance. Students will also advance their understanding of imaginary numbers through an investigation of complex numbers and polar coordinates. A strong understanding of complex and imaginary numbers is a necessity for fields such as engineering and computer programming. This class is only offered to advanced Math students who will be taking IB Math HL during junior and senior years and need to review the necessary trigonometry concepts in order to be successful.